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the first authentic hotel on the Gallipoli peninsula
"...moving to Ariburnu" picture reproduced from "Çanakkale, Ariburnu Heros", Izmir 2006, Nebahat & Cemalettin Yıldız, p. 71
higher up and therefore submitted willingly to military
He did what was asked with a patience and composure, only witnessed in Orientals, and he could cope with the harshest and most demanding situations. A
sense of duty, stemming in the main from obtuse obedience rather than a motivating idealistic force, combined with the require-ments and affirmation of theMuslim Religion, qualified the Turk to perform a level of self-sacrifice that can hardly be found in other
Last updated : 05/02/08
people.The mental development of the Turkish soldier however did not match his
physical and moral qualities. Turks lived their lives with either
insufficient or indeed no education at all with more then 90 % of the
population beingilliterate. Therefore
good mental abilities remained dormant and by not being exploited to the full
further deteriorated into mental inertness. Lack of practice in the use of
personal mental ability resulted in poor powers of judgement and consequently
the individuals powers of self direction hardly ever existed or developed.
The Turkish soldier needed to be under constant guidance, without such supervision he lacked the ability to make a decision by himself; he became unsure, could not brace himself into action, waited for orders and remained inactive and did not respond by himself to the events surrounding him. As he had grown up with the doctrine of kismet, believing in the unchangeable powers of fate, he would easily slip into a state of indifference and down-heartiness. As a result of this state of mind arose as a sort of mass reaction- the so feared panic attacks. These attacks would disappear with the same speed as they appeared when a strong leadership made itself felt.
Translated from The Battle for The Dardanelles-1915, (Berlin 1927), Major Dr. Carl Mühlmann, p. 17
As all people who are rooted to their environment, the Turk brought with him into military training a number of natural abilities: in general he was sharp, had a good sense of orientation and a natural capacity to mount a horse. Strong moral constitutions were very common, the result of a youth lived in a pure environment. The Turk was abstinent and sober, modest and reserved, faithful and reliable. From his youth he was brought up being used to subordination, he was happy to be under the command to those
"Soldiers firing", period pictue reproduced from " Epic of Çanakkale - sea, land and air wars", (Istanbul-2005), Turhan Seçer, p. 472
The Turks from Thrace and Anatolia were by far the most suitable for military service. As farmers, living a humble life and being used to hard labour, they possessed great powers of physical endurance. Nevertheless due to under nourishment and insufficient immunity against diseases in many regions signs of human deterioration of serious proportions were visible. Those coming from cities were generally in poorer shape due to the absence of hard labour and sports. In general the Turks had a certain roughness and clumsiness but such attributes on the other hand benefited the instructor. The exceptional sobriety and modesty, reinforced by a fatalistic view of life, made the Turkish soldier capable of coping with hardships and strains under which a European soldier would have collapsed both physically and morally.